Soal Sejarah UMB PTN 2009

>> Monday, February 28, 2011

Learning Mandarin in the truly ancient Middle Kingdom is today more popular than it has ever been in China's 4000 years of history. During its many centuries China has often eclipsed other nations in many aspects. During the Tang dynasty China was at its classical pinnacle. Fantastic works of architecture and arts remain to tell the tale of an enlightened, advanced and powerful heritage. But the world then is different from the world today. At the dawn of globalization, when first the English set out to map the earth a fundamental new aspect to humanity was realized. Interconnectedness was for the most part of 300 years a polarized curse and blessing for those that were exploring and those that got explored. China was already in cultural decline when Europe reached is shores and the great nation state became another example of what can happen when people with really good guns meet people without.

Sid Meier quoted a pretty good proverb once that goes "never bring a knife to gunfight". Ian M. Banks named a novel after a sociological / anthropological concept know as excession; when one civilization meets another that has reached a few rungs higher on the technological ladder. The results are never a treat.

We are very grateful for your visit on this blog, please you may download the files you need here and of course free and is very important!

Download Questions of Sejarah for UMB PTN

Download Questions

But with the rewards that came from colonial prowess for Europe a new type of light began to grow there. After the horrors of the Second World war Europe started to feel pretty bad about its exploits. The war had also brought a new spirit of cooperation. The war also changed many other things, perhaps the foremost being the beginning of the Cold War. People are slow to learn from mistake and the subsequent 40 years of Cold War was little better for many poor parts of the world than the previous 300 had been (Korea, Vietnam, Cambodia, Most of Africa etc. etc.) and even at the end of that war, lots of people were still getting the short end of most sticks.


Soal Sejarah Snmptn 2008

The newest payment option available to the public is mobile banking. Now you can even use a cell phone to make financial transactions. Quite a few banks have created programs for smartphones allowing their customers to deposit checks for virtually anywhere.

We are very grateful for your visit on this blog, please you may download the files you need here and of course free and is very important!

Download Questions of Sejarah for Snmptn

Download Questions Package 1,
Download Questions Package 2,
Download Questions Package 3,
Download Questions Package 4,
Download Questions Package 5,
Download Questions Package 6

All a user has to do is snap a picture of the check's front and back, enter the amount and send it to their bank or credit union.
There may be a final chapter in the story of checks around the world, but for the near future they will remain an option for everyone.

Soal Sejarah Snmptn 2009

In 2004, lawmakers in Washington D.C. passed the Check Clearing Act for the 21st Century also known as Check 21. Check 21 makes it possible for banks and businesses to use digital images of checks known as a substitute check.
Check 21 made check clearing and processing much faster and more efficient by eliminating the need for so many people to physically handle a check.
The Future of Checks:

We are very grateful for your visit on this blog, please you may download the files you need here and of course free and is very important!

Download Questions of Sejarah for Snmptn

Download Questions Package 1, Download Solutions
Download Questions Package 2, Download Solutions
Download Questions Package 3, Download Solutions

Download Questions Package 4, Download Solutions
Download Questions Package 5, Download Solutions
Download Questions Package 6, Download Solutions

Checks have been a big contributor to the evolution of the financial industry for the past five centuries. Current research reveals that 67% of U.S. citizen claim to write a minimum of 10 personal checks each month.
These days, you can order personal checks online and even choose check designs that fit your personality. Options at Check Advantage include Nature Checks, Wildlife Checks and Fun and Games Checks.


Soal Sejarah Snmptn 2010

Big changes and some serious competition came about for personal checks in the modern age.
In 1959, the MICR code was developed in the United States. Magnetic ink character recognition allowed financial institutions to read the routing and account numbers with machines. It is similar to the way a tape deck plays back audio from the magnetic tape on a cassette. By the early sixties, MICR codes were used on checks all over the U.S.

We are very grateful for your visit on this blog, please you may download the files you need here and of course free and is very important!

Download Questions of Sejarah for Snmptn

Download Questions Package 1,
Download Questions Package 2, Download Solutions

The '50s also brought about the first charge card with the Diner's Club Card, and the first ATM or automated teller machine entered the scene in 1967.
Personal checks were being used so often in the U.S. Concerns arose in the 1960s that the volume of checks in the U.S. would be too much to control. That's when ACH or Automated Clearing House payments were developed bringing about conveniences like direct deposit.
Checks are still a large part of the.S. economy. A study in 1979 revealed that more than 85% of all non-cash retail payments were made by check. However, credit and debit card use increased through the 1980s and 1990s, and electronic payments as a whole outnumbered check payments for the first time in 2001 (according to the Federal Reserve).


Soal Sejarah Simak UI 2009

You can expect the use of checks to remain a reliable payment option because of the impact they've had on the history of the world.
The Emergence of the Paper Check:
The earliest forms of checks can be traced back to the beginning of the banking system itself. It's believed that the people of the Ancient Roman Empire were the first to use what could be considered a paper check. Other cultures had their own versions of checks.

During the 3rd Century A.D. the Persian Empire used letters of credit known as chak. The word is referred to in a number of Arabic documents. Muslim traders used a version of a check system in the 9th century and the Knights of Templar introduced another version of checks used by Christian pilgrims taking journeys to the Holy Land or across Europe between the years 1118 and 1307.
All of these check systems allowed merchants and travelers the ability to transfer large sums of money without carrying gold and silver coins with them. It is believed the first nation to widely use checks as a form of payment instead of a means of transferring funds was Holland in the late 1500s. The use of checks spread across Europe from there.

We are very grateful for your visit on this blog, please you may download the files you need here and of course free and is very important!

Download Questions of Sejarah for Simak UI

Download Questions Package 1, Solutions
Download Questions Package 2, Solutions

The Paper Check Get Personal:
England began replacing handwritten checks (or cheques as they are called in the U.K.) with printed paper forms.
In 1811, the Commercial Bank of Scotland was the first to make personal checks with an account holder's name printed on the forms. Soon after - the Bank of England started binding and stitching checks together in sets of 50, 100 and 200 creating the first checkbooks.


Soal Sejarah Simak UI 2010

History (from Greek ἱστορία - historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation" is the study of the human past. History can also mean the period of time after writing was invented. Scholars who write about history are called historians. It is a field of research which uses a narrative to examine and analyse the sequence of events, and it sometimes attempts to investigate objectively the patterns of cause and effect that determine events.

We are very grateful for your visit on this blog, please you may download the files you need here and of course free and is very important!

Download Questions of Sejarah for Simak UI

Download Questions, Download Solutions

The stories common to a particular culture, but not supported by external sources (such as the legends surrounding King Arthur) are usually classified as cultural heritage rather than the "disinterested investigation" needed by the discipline of history.
Checks have played a crucial role in the development of the financial industry throughout history. They are the oldest form of payment other than cash, and checks continue to be one of the most reliable ways to pay - despite the growth of electronic payments such as credit and debit.


Drill of History for SPMB Unsoed

>> Tuesday, February 15, 2011

In November 1989 I thought was living through one of history's defining moments. I was in Berlin the night the Berlin Wall came down and memories of that night will be with me forever. Like the Berlin Wall coming down when JFK was assassinated, or when Princess Diana died, everyone remembers where they were when they heard the news.
Yesterday history was made again. It came at the end of what must be the most expensive marketing campaign the world has ever seen and resulted in the election of Barack Obama as the US President elect. The campaign lasted eighteen months and if we examine it we can learn a lot about marketing, not only of an election , but also how to market your product or service.

Download Drill of History University Exam - SPMB Unsoed

Download Questions
Download Solutions

Leading up to that event over $1500million was spent by those striving for, what is arguably, the most powerful job on the planet.
We ended with two 'products' with substantially different features and benefits... two potential Presidents and two potential Vice Presidents ..... and despite all the money spent we will remember just a few sound bites, photographs and quotes.
For me the photographs of Sarah Palin with a gun delivered a powerful message. If you are part of the gun lobby then the image was positive; but if you are anti-gun this is the image that lost the Republicans your vote.
Photographs are powerful and are a bit like a first impression - they create a powerful emotion that it takes a lot to dispel.
So what's the lesson here? Be very careful of the images you use in your literature, on your website and elsewhere. For part of my career I was attached to the Cabinet Office in London. Guess what; this is what politicians do all the time. They pose for photographs. Wise politicians however avoid certain photo "opportunities". No politician, not even an agricultural minister, wants to be photographed with a pig! Photos like this have a habit of appearing again years later when a scandal brews and headlines like "Snouts in the trough", "And pigs might fly" etc will surely follow.
Look not only at the content in their existing context but how unscrupulous people might twist them in future.
Over the years the Republican Party has built a reputation for clever direct mail tactics. They have used them to raise funds far more efficiently than the Democrats. This time the tables turned. The Democrats worked at building a permission based email list - exactly as I often suggest you do with autoresponders on your website. They tracked who opened their emails, when they did so and, more importantly, who responded with donations. And they milked the list for all it was worth.
Barack Obama had another challenge. He knew that the traditional Democratic voter wouldn't be sufficient to get him elected (it had failed John Kerry). So he too set out to find new voters (i.e. customers) and included not only black voters but also the young, those that had never registered before, war veterans and many more. Finding new customers always a time consuming, expensive and often risky exercise. But he had plenty of money rolling in from his email campaigns.
He also managed to engage Word of Mouth. For example, one local barber in North Carolina, kept telling his customers that the time for change has come and they should vote Obama. Every time they came in he badgered them to vote and he made sure those not registered got registered and voted for the first time in their life. Obama recognised his weakness as being his relative inexperience as a politician compared with McCain. So he called in Joe Biden of Delaware. Biden is one of the longest-serving members of the U.S. Senate and balanced Obama's weakness.
McCain on the other hand chose Sarah Palin. His rationale was to embrace the Bush supporter. He was hoping for a side effect, which was to attract Hillary Clinton's previous supporters and to build his voter base.
If it had worked, it would have been the masterstroke that landed the Presidency. In McCain's case, it failed dismally.
His decision cost him the economically minded middle voter who then went to Obama.
The lesson for the rest of us is that trying to win new customers is risky. It can work but your customers have to be sure of your product and the voters didn't like the McCain/Palin product.
McCain was acclaimed as delivering in the televised head to head meetings with Obama; but to my mind Obama is a great orator and McCain couldn't match him. People follow great orators.
And in Sarah Palin the voters didn't see a President in waiting; ready to step into the Presidents shoes if anything happened to him.
Of course in your business you don't need to be a great orator. But you do need to be a great communicator; able to communicate the benefits of your product or service through your website, adverts, signage, customer service etc. So ask yourself does your business run on autopilot when you are not there? Does your marketing keep working? Yours may not be that sort of business but the lesson is to communicate well and serve your customer seamlessly at all times.
There was one other feature of this election that plagues politicians. When their backs are against the wall they rubbish the opposition. Since political campaigns have been televised voter turnout has dropped across the globe. People have become disenchanted the verbal attacks. In the UK Prime Minister Questions have become an excuse for gutter tactics and the same happened in the US elections. It has to be said that voter turnout was better than previous recent elections but voters didn't like the Republican's attacks on Obama.
The lesson here is not to knock the opposition with your marketing. Show the benefits of your product or service and leave rubbishing your competitors to those with no benefits to sell.
This election was a great lesson in marketing and we can all learn a lot from it.

Drill of History for UMB PTN

Early in June this year, the Nigerian government reassumed control of the once divested state-run telecom giant NITEL, blaming unpaid debts and investment shortfalls. Abuja had sold off a 51% stake in this national asset during former president OJ Obsanjo's tenure in 2006 as part of a massive reforms and disinvestment process. Transcorp, the local firm that bought majority control for a fee of $500 million was accused of failing to meet payment obligations to the tune of $60 million, besides accumulating debts totalling 17 billion naira1. NITEL suffered huge subscriber losses for both fixed line and mobile phone services since 2001. The development came as yet another shocking national debacle, not just in terms of monetary loss, but also official economic policy and administrative foresight. The current government has since signalled the appointment of a technical board to manage NITEL until new investment is forthcoming.

Download Drill of History University Exam - UMB PTN

Download Questions
Download Solutions

The 35 year old flagship national carrier with a history of failed mergers and service safety concerns saw numerous resuscitation attempts before finally ceasing operations in 2003. Parrying allegations of massive corruption and mismanagement leading to the airline's ruin, the government managed secure Virgin Atlantic Airways as a partner for a strategic re-launch. However, Virgin's recently announced intention to withdraw its share holding from Nigeria Airways perhaps sounds the death knell to another miserably-failed public undertaking.
For Nigeria, the failure is two-fold. More importantly, it questions the design and impact of the much vaunted Nigerian reforms process, ironically initiated to undo precisely the same economic reversals it appears to be engendering.
The fate of the economy in general and of large enterprises in particular has been remarkably disappointing in this petrodollar rich sub-Saharan nation of prodigious natural resources. While decades of political tumult and civil strife are partly to blame, rampant corruption and non-inclusive policies have added up to leave Nigeria at the nether rungs of economic indicators and human development indices. In such a climate, and despite recent redirections in government policy, Nigeria's Millennium Development Goals and its 2020 target of making it to the top 20 world economies present monumental challenges.
With the long-term repercussions and viability of recent disinvestments in oil, steel and port entities still in question, large enterprises are obviously not the way to these goals. Of critical importance here is the fact that MSMEs offer a distinct macroeconomic profile and potential, and are not merely scaled-down versions of larger enterprises. The financial flexibility, employment potential and innovative capacity of MSMEs have contributed substantially to both developed and developing economies around the world. According to the European Network for Social and Economic Research (ENSR), MSMEs with up to 250 employees created 68 million jobs in the European Union2. Comparable data for South Africa indicates that small enterprises accounted for 55% of its total employment and 22% of GDP in 2003.
Allowing for local and circumstantial variables, MSMEs have shown greater profitability across national barriers owing to higher human capital efficiency and product transformation capacity. Although there is no determinable link between financial structure and profitability, the calculation of gross profits over capital employed has always worked to the advantage of MSMEs over large enterprises.
On the flip side, small enterprises suffer two basic disadvantages that large enterprises by definition are without: elevated rates of employee costs as well as working capital requirements. Large enterprises have lower costs per unit turnover and substantially larger cash flow capacities. Moreover, MSMEs represent a high risk factor in terms of debt repayment capacity, often because of inadequate financial know-how and limited access to guidance and consultation. Long term success of MSMEs is additionally contingent upon a heightened degree of financial flexibility that enables rapid adaptation to changing market needs.
The disappointment with large scale, capital intensive and often import-dependent businesses had been growing long before the current global economic downturn set in. While Nigeria has a lot to blame on itself for its experience with large enterprises, reports of their diminishing impact on inclusive economic growth is emerging unmistakably from across the globe. In the European Union for instance, 99% of its 20 million enterprises are small and medium scale operations that currently account for two-thirds of total employment in the private sector3. As new economic realities begin to hold sway, slowly but surely the practicality of mammoth ventures running on gigantic employee and capital turnovers is slipping away.
MSMEs, contrarily, hold out a multitude of short and long term benefits that are of especial relevance to Nigeria - wider utilization of natural and human resources, entrepreneurship and rural development, increased savings and greater regional balance. In the context of both immediate and long term goals, a policy shift in favor of rapid promotion of smaller enterprises is perhaps the only policy priority standing between Nigeria and a rapidly prospering economy.
Further practical problems are in the form of skilled manpower shortage, a disturbing enterprise mortality rate4 and devastating infrastructural deficiencies, especially in terms of security, power and roads. Improving availability and access to finance and equity remains the most critical challenge by far, in response to which Abuja initiated a bank consolidation program in 2004 to fortify financial institutions and enhance credit access to the private sector.
In order to ensure rapid entrepreneurship development, the Nigerian government must effect swift fiscal, monetary and industrial policy changes in order to capitalize on its huge MSME potential. A lot depends on the effective management of its human resource capital - its sizeable population that has been traditionally dependent on extremely small, subsistence-level enterprises. It is a matter of fact that the fate of Nigeria's ambitious economic goals rests largely on its ability to convert this talent into tangible economic growth.


About This Blog

Label Cloud

Popular Posts

  © History Courses by Online Schools

Back to TOP